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ALWAR, or ULWAR, a native state of India in the Rajputana agency. It is bounded on the E. by the state of Bharatpur and the British district of Gurgaon, on the N. by Gurgaon district and the state of Patiala, on the W. by the states of Nabha and Jaipur, and on the S. by the state of Jaipur. Its configuration is irregular, the greatest length from north to south being about 80 m., and breadth from east to west about 60 m., with a total area of 3141 sq. m. The eastern portion of the state is open and highly cultivated; the western is diversified by hills and peaks, which form a continuation of the Aravalli range, from 12 to 20 m. in breadth. These hills run in rocky and precipitous parallel ridges, in some places upwards of 2200 ft. in height. The Sabhi river flows through the north-western part of the state, the only other stream of importance being the Ruparel, which rises in the Alwar hills, and flows through the state into the Bharatpur territory. The population in 1901 was 828,487, showing an increase of 8% during the decade. When compared with a heavy decrease elsewhere throughout Rajputana, this increase may be attributed to the successful administration of famine relief, under British officials. The revenue is L. 185,000. The maharaja Jai Singh, who succeeded in 1892 at the age of ten, was educated at the Mayo college, where he excelled both in sports and in knowledge of English. He came of age in 1903, when he was invested by the viceroy with full ruling powers. Alwar was the first native state to accept a currency struck at the Calcutta mint, of the same weight and assay as the imperial rupee, with the head of the British sovereign on the obverse. Imperial service troops are maintained, consisting of both cavalry and infantry, with transport. The state is traversed by the Delhi branch of the Rajputana railway. A settlement of the land revenue has been carried out by an English civilian.

The state was founded by Pratap Singh (1740-1791), a Rajput of ancient lineage, and increased by his adopted son Bakhtawar Singh. The latter joined the British against the Mahrattas, and in 1803, after the battle of Laswari (Nov. 1), signed a treaty of offensive and defensive alliance with the British government. In 1811, owing to his armed intervention in Jaipur, a fresh engagement was made, prohibiting him from political intercourse with other states without British consent. In 1857 the raja Binni Singh sent a force of Mussulmans and Rajputs to relieve the British garrison in Agra; the Mussulmans, however, deserted, and the rest were defeated by the mutineers.

The CITY OF ALWAR has a railway station on the Rajputana line, 98 m. from Delhi; pop. (1901) 56,771, showing a steady increase. It stands in a valley overhung by a fortress 1000 ft. above. It is surrounded by a rampart and moat, with five gates, and contains fine palaces, temples and tombs. The water-supply is brought from a lake 9 m. distant. It has a high school, affiliated to the Allahabad university; and a school for the sons of nobles, founded to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. The Lady Dufferin hospital is under the charge of an English lady doctor, with two female assistants.

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

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