About Maximapedia

THE LETTER O - The sixteenth letter of the Phoenician and early Greek alphabets, the fifteenth in English and the fourteenth in Latin. Between N and O the Phoenician and the Ionic Greek alphabet have a sibilant in Greek & = x. The Western Greek alphabet had a different symbol, X, for the sound of x and placed it at the end, as did its descendant the Latin alphabet. The original form of o was a more or less roughly formed circle. The Aramaic i- and Hebrew V, which seem so different, arise from a circle left open at the top, (J, a form which can be traced in Aramaic from the 5th or 6th century B.C. In the Greek alphabets the circle appears sometimes with a dot in the centre, but in many cases it is doubtful whether this mark is, intentional, or is only the result of fixing a sharp point there while describing the circle. Sometimes O is lozenge-shaped and rarely (in Arcadia and Elis) rectangular CD. In many varieties of the Greek alphabet this symbol was used, as it always was in Latin, for the long as well as the short o-sound and also for the long vowel (in the Ionic alphabet written ov) which arose from contraction of two vowels or the loss of a consonant (8rj\ovTe=5ri\QtTe, OIKOUS = OIKOVS). As early as the 8th century Ionic Greek had invented a separate symbol for the long o-sound, viz. Ji. This when borrowed by other dialects showed at first some variety of usage, though practically none in form. As this was placed at the end of the ordinary (not the numeral) Greek alphabet, " alpha and omega " has become a proverbial phrase for first and last. The Greeks themselves, however, did not call Q omega (great o) nor did they call O omicron (little o), though these names are given even in modern Greek grammars. The former was called simply o and the latter u (ov, pronounced as oo in moon). The Hebrew and probably the Phoenician name for O was Ain (Ayin), and in the Semitic alphabet, which does not indicate vowels, the symbol stood for a " voiced glottal stop " and also for a " voiced velar spirant " (Zimmern). The most important feature of this vowel is the rounding of the lips in its production, which, according to its degree, modifies the nature of the vowel considerably, as can be observed in the pronunciation of the increasingly rounded series saw, no, who. In Attic Greek O and fl were not really a pair, for o + o became not co but ov, o being a close and w an open sound. In Latin the converse was more nearly true. Though short o changed in the Latin of the last age of the Roman republic to u in unaccented syllables always (except after u whether vowel or consonant), and sometimes also in accented syllables, this was not equally true of vulgar Latin, as is shown by the Romance languages. In English also the short and the long o are of different qualities, the short in words like not, got being in Sweet's phonetic terminology a low-back-wide-round, the long in words like no a mid-back-wide-round. The long vowel becomes more rounded as it is being pronounced, so that it ends in a M-sound, though this is not so noticeable in weak syllables like the final syllable of follow. The so-called modified 8 is a rounded e-sound found in several varieties. The sound heard in words like the German Goiter is, according to Sweet, a low-front-wide-round, while Jespersen regards it as not low but middle. A mid-front-narrow-round vowel is found short in French words like pen, long in jefine and in endings like that of honteuse. The Norse sound written <t> is of the same nature. (P. Gi.)

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

O

Oak
Oakham
Oakland
Oakum
Oamaru
Oannes
Oar
Oasis
Oast
Oastler, Richard
Oat
Oath
Oaxaca City
Oaxaca
Ob
Obadiah
Oban
Obbligato
Obelisk
Oberammergau
Oberhausen
Oberlahnstein
Oberlander, Adam Adolf
Oberlin, Jean Frederic
Oberlin, Ohio
Oberlin
Oberon
Oberstein
Obit
Obiter Dictum
Object
Objective
Objectivism
Oblation
Obligation
Obnoxious
Oboe
Obok
Obra
O'brien, William Smith
Obscenity
Obsequens, Julius
Obsequies
Observatory
Obsidian
Obstetrics
Ocala
Ocarina
Ocas
Occam, William Of
Occasionalism
Occleve
Occultation
Ocean And Oceanography
Ocean City
Ocean Grove, New Jersey
Oceania
Oceanus
Ocellus Lucanus
Ocelot
Ochakov
Ochiltree
Ochino, Bernardino
Ochres
Ochrida
Ochsenfurt
Ochterlony, Sir David
Ochtman, Leonard
Ockley, Simon
Oconomowoc
Oconto
Ocriculum
Octahedron
Octave
Octavia
Octavo
October
Octodon
Octopus
Octoroon
Octostyle
Octroi
Ocydrome
Odaenathus
Odalisque
Odd
Odde
Oddfellows, Order Of
Ode
Odenkirchen
Odense
Odenwald
Oder
Oderberg
Odescalchi-Erba
Odessa
Odeum
Odilienberg
Odin
Odo, King Of Aquitaine
Odo, King Of The Franks
Odo Of Bayeux
Odoacer
Odofredus
Odontornithes
Odoric
Odylic Force
Odysseus
Oeben, Jean Francois
Oecolampadius, John
Oecumenical
Oecus
Oedipus
Oehler, Gustav Friedrich
Oehringen
Oels
Oelschlager
Oelsnitz
Oelwein
Oenomaus
Oenone
Oerlams
Oesel
Oesophagus
Oeta
Oetinger, Friedrich Christoph
Oeynhausen
Offa, Anglo-Saxon Hero
Offa, King Of Mercia
Offal
Offenbach, Jacques
Offenbach
Offenburg
Offertory
Office
Officers
Official
Officinal
Ogden
Ogdensburg
Ogee
Ogier The Dane
Ogilby, John
Ogilvie
Ogilvy
Ogive
Oglethorpe, James Edward
Ogowe
Ogre
Ogyges
Ohio Company
Ohio River
Ohio
Ohlau
Ohlenschlager, Adam Gottlob
Ohligs
Ohm, Georg Simon
Ohmmeter
Ohnet, Georges
Ohrdruf
Oihenart, Arnauld De
Oil City
Oil Engine
Oillets
Oilman, Daniel Coit
Oils
Oiron
Oise River
Oise
Ojibway
Okapl
Okehampton
Oken, Lorenz
Okhotsk, Sea Of
Oki
Oklahoma City
Oklahoma
Okubo Toshimitsu
Okuma
Olaf
Oland
Olaus Magnus
Olbers, Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias
Olbia, Sardinia
Olbia
Old-Age Pensions
Old Catholics
Old Deer
Old English Riddles
Old Forge
Old Maid
Old Point Comfort
Old Slavonic
Old Town
Oldbury
Oldcastle, Sir John
Oldenbarneveldt, Johan Van
Oldenburg
Oldfield
Oldham, John
Oldham, Thomas
Oldham
Oldmixon, John
Oldopield, Anne
Oldys, William
Olean
Oleander
Oleaster
Olefine
Oleg
Oleic Acid
Oleig, George
Olen
Oleron
Olfactory System
Olga
Olgierd
Olhao
Oligarchy
Oligocene System
Oligoclase
Oliphant, Laurence
Oliphant, Margaret Oliphant
Oliphant
Oliva, Fernan Perez De
Olivares, Caspar De Guzman
Olive
Oliveira Martins, Joaquim Pedro De
Olivenite
Oliver, Isaac
Oliver, Peter
Olives, Mount Of
Olivetans
Olivier, Juste Daniel
Olivine
Ollivier, Olivier Emille
Olmsted, Denison
Olmsted, Frederick Law
Olney, Buckinghamshire
Olney, Illinois
Olney, Richard
Olonets
Olopan
Oloron-Sainte-Marie
Olshausen, Hermann
Oltenitza
Olustee
Olybrius
Olympia, Washington
Olympia
Olympiad
Olympias
Olympiodorus
Olympus, Mount
Olynthus
Omagh
Omaguas
Omaha
Omahas
Omalius
Oman
Omar Khayyam
Omar
Ombre
Omdurman
Omelette
Omen
Omichund
Omnibus
Omri
Omsk
Onagraceae
Onatas
Onega
Oneida Community
Oneida Indians
Oneida, New York
Oneonta
Onesicritus
Onion
Onomacritus
Onomatopoeia
Onondaga
Onosander
Onslow, Arthur
Onslow, Earl Of
Ontario, Canada
Ontario, Lake
Onteniente
Ontology
Onyx
Oolite
Oosterzee, Jan Jacob Van
Ootacamund
Ooze
Opah
Opal
Opalina
Opata
Opera
Ophicleide
Ophir
Ophites
Ophthalmology
Opie, Amelia
Opie, John
Opinion
Opitz Von Boeerfeld, Martin
Opium
Opladen
Opon
Oporto
Opossum
Oppel, Carl Albert
Oppeln
Oppenheim
Oppert, Julius
Oppian
Oppius, Gaius
Optics
Option
Opus
Orach
Oracle
Orakzai
Oran
Orang-Utan
Orange, France
Orange Free State
Orange, House Of
Orange, New Jersey
Orange, New South Wales
Orange Tree
Orangeburg
Orangemen
Oranienbaum
Oraons
Oratorio
Oratory Of St Philip Neri, Congregation Of The
Oratory
Orb
Orbetello
Orbigny, Alcide Dessalines
Orbilius, Pupillus
Orbit
Orcagna
Orchard
Orchardson, Sir William Quiller
Orchestra
Orchestrion
Orchids
Orchomenus
Orcin
Orckha
Ordeal
Order, Architecture
Order, Holy
Order In Council
Order
Orderic Vitalis
Ordinance
Ordinary
Ordinate
Ordnance
Ordonnance
Ordovician System
Ordu
Orduin
Ore-Dressing
Orebro
Oregon City
Oregon
Orel, Or
Orel
Orelli, Hans Konrad Von
Orelli, Johann Caspar Von
Orenburg, Government Of
Orenburg, Russia
Orendel
Orense, City
Orense, Province
Oreodon
Oresme, Nicolas
Orestes
Orfila, Mathieu Joseph Bona Venture
Orford, Edward Russell
Orford
Organ
Organistrum
Organization And Tactical Employment
Oriel
Orientation
Oriente, Or
Origen
Original Package
Orihuela
Orillia
Orinoco
Oriole
Orion And Orus
Orion
Oriskany
Orissa
Oristano
Oriya
Orizaba, Mexico
Orizaba Mountain
Orkhon Inscriptions
Orkney, Earl Of
Orkney, Elizabeth Hamilton
Orkney, George Hamilton
Orkney Islands
Orleanais
Orleanists
Orleans, Charles
Orleans, Duke Of
Orleans, Dukes Of
Orleans, Ferdinand Philip Louis Charles Henry
Orleans, Henri
Orleans, Henrietta
Orleans, Jean Baptiste Gaston
Orleans, Louis Philippe Joseph
Orleans, Louis Philippe Robert
Orleans, Louis Philippe
Orleans, Louis
Orleans, Philip I
Orleans, Philip II
Orleans
Orley, Bernard Van
Orlov
Orm
Ormazd
Orme, Robert
Ormerod, Eleanor
Ormoc
Ormolu
Ormond
Ormonde, Earl And Marquess Of
Ormonde, James Butler, 1st Duke Of
Ormonde, James Butler, 2nd Duke Of
Ormskirk
Ornament
Orne
Ornithology
Orodes
Orography
Orontes
Oropus
Orosius, Paulus
Orphan
Orpheus
Orphrey
Orpiment
Orpington
Orrery, Roger Boyle
Orrery, Charles Boyle
Orris-Root
Orseole
Orsha
Orsini, Felice
Orsini
Orta, Lake Of
Ortelius
Orthez
Orthoclase
Orthodox Eastern Church
Orthography
Orthonyx
Orthoptera
Orthostyle
Ortigueira
Ortler
Ortnit
Ortolan, Joseph Louis Elzear
Ortolan
Orton, Job
Ortona
Oruro
Orvieto
Oryx
Orzeszko
Osaka
Osawatomie
Osborn, Sherard
Osborne
Osca Lingua
Oscar I
Oscar II
Osceola
Oschatz
Oschersleben
Oscilla
Oscillograph
Osh
Oshawa
Oshima
Oshkosh
Osiander, Andreas
Osier
Osimo
Osiris
Oskaloosa
Osman, Mushir
Osman
Osmium
Osnabruck
Osnaburg
Osorio, Jeronymo
Osprey
Osroene
Osroes
Ossa
Ossett
Ossian
Ossington, John Evelyn Denison
Ossining
Ossory, Thomas Butler
Ossory
Ostade
Ostashkov
Ostend Company
Ostend
Osteology
Osterman, Andrei Ivanovich
Osterode
Ostersund
Ostervald, Jean Frederic
Ostia
Ostiaks
Ostra
Ostracism
Ostracoderms
Ostrau
Ostrich
Ostrog
Ostrogoths
Ostrovskiy, Alexander Nikolaivich
Ostuni
Osuna, Pedro Tellez Giron
Osuna
Oswald, Archbishop Of York
Oswald, King Of Northumbria
Oswaldtwistle
Oswego
Oswestry
Oswio
Othman
Othniel
Otho, Marcus Salvius
Otis, Harrison Gray
Otis, James
Otley
Otranto
Ottakar
Ottava Rima
Ottawa, Illinois
Ottawa Indians
Ottawa, Kansas
Ottawa, Ontario
Ottawa River
Otter
Ottery St Mary
Ottignies
Otto II
Otto III
Otto IV
Otto Of Freising
Otto Of Nordheim
Otto
Ottoman
Ottumwa
Otway, Thomas
Oubliette
Ouch
Oudenarde
Oudine, Eugene Andre
Oudinot, Charles Nicolas
Oughtred, William
Ouida
Oulfweed
Ounce
Oundle
Ouro Preto
Ouse
Ousel
Ouseley, Sir Frederick Arthur Gore
Ouseley, Sir William
Ouster
Outlawry
Outrage
Outram, Sir James
Oval
Ovar
Ovariotomy
Ovation
Oven
Ovenus
Overbeck, Johann Friedrich
Overbury, Sir Thomas
Overdoor
Overmantel
Oversoul
Overstone, Samuel Jones Loyd
Overt Act
Overture
Overysel
Ovid
Oviedo, Province Of
Oviedo, Spain
Oviedo Y Valdes, Gonzalo Fernandez De
Ovolo
Owatonna
Owego
Owen, John
Owen, Robert
Owen, Sir Hugh
Owen, Sir Richard
Owen Sound
Owens, John
Owensboro
Owl
Owling
Owosso
Ox
Oxalic Acid
Oxalis
Oxe, Peder
Oxenbridge, John
Oxenford, John
Oxenham, Henry Nutcombe
Oxenstjerna
Oxford, Earls Of
Oxford, Edward De Vere
Oxford, John De Vere
Oxford, Ohio
Oxford, Provisions Of
Oxford, Robert De Vere
Oxford, Robert Harley
Oxford
Oxfordian
Oxfordshire
Oxide
Oximes
Oxus
Oxygen
Oxyhydrogen Flame
Oyama, Iwao
Oyer And Terminer
Oyster Bay
Oyster-Catcher
Oyster
Oystermouth
Ozanam, Antoine Frederic
Ozieri
Ozokerite
Ozone

Privacy Policy