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THE LETTER N - A letter which regularly follows M in the alphabet, and, like it in its early forms has the first limb longer than the others; thus, written from right to left, V\. The Semitic languages gradually diminish the size of the other two limbs, while the Greek and Latin alphabets tend to make all three of equal length. The earliest name of the symbol was Nun, whence comes the Greek ny (vv). The sound of varies according to the point at which the contact of the tongue with the roof of the mouth is made; it may be dental, alveolar, palatal or guttural. In Sanskrit these four sounds are distinguished by different symbols; the last two occur in combination with stops or affricates of the same series. The French or German n when standing by itself is dental, the English alveolar, i.e. pronounced like the English t and d against the sockets of the teeth instead of the teeth themselves. The guttural nasal is written in English ng as in ring; for. the palatal n as in lynch there is no separate symbol. The sound of n stands in the same relation to d as m stands to b; both are ordinarily voiced and the mouth position for both is the same, but in pronouncing n the nasal passage is left open, so that the sound of n can be continued while that of d cannot. This is best observed by pronouncing syllables where the consonant comes last as in and id. When the nasal passage is closed, as when one has a bad cold, m and n cannot be pronounced; attempts to pronounce moon result only hi hood. Two important points arise in connexion with nasals: (i) sonant nasals, (2) nasalization of vowels. The discovery of sonant nasals by Dr Karl Brugman in 1876 (Curtius, Studien, 9, pp. 285-338) explained many facts of language which had been hitherto obscure and elucidated many difficulties in the Indo-European vowel system. It had been observed, for example, that the same original negative prefix was represented in Sanskrit by a, Greek by a, in Latin by in and in Germanic by un, and these differences had not been accounted for satisfactorily. Dr Brugman argued that in these and similar cases the syllable was made by the consonant alone, and the nasal so used was termed a sonant nasal and written n. In most cases Sanskrit and Greek lost the nasal sound altogether and replaced it by a vowel a, a, while in Latin and Germanic a vowel was developed independently before the nasal. In the accusative singular of consonant stems Sans, pddant, Gr. irbSa, Lat. pedem, Sanskrit and Greek did not, as generally, agree, but it was shown that in such cases there were originally two forms according to the nature of the sound beginning the next word in the sentence. Thus an original Indo-European *pedm, would not be treated precisely in the same way if the next word began with a vowel as it would when a consonant followed. Sanskrit had adopted the form used before vowels, Greek the form before consonants and each had dropped the alternative form. The second point the nasalizing of vowels is difficult for an Englishman to understand or to produce, as the sounds do not exist in his language. Thus in learning to pronounce French he tends to replace the nasalized vowels by the nearest sounds in English, making the Fr. on a nasalized vowel (o), into Eng. ong, a vowel followed by a guttural consonant. The nasalized vowels are produced by drawing forward the uvula, the " tab " at the end of the soft palate, so that the breath escapes through the nose as well as the mouth. In the French nasalized vowels, however, many phoneticians hold that, besides the leaving of the nasal passage open, there is a change in the position of the tongue in passing from a to a. The nasalized vowels are generally written with a hook below, upon the analogy of the transliteration of such sounds in the Slavonic languages, but as the same symbol is often used to distinguish an " open " vowel from a " close " one, the use is not without ambiguity. On the other hand, it is not admissible to write a for the nasalized vowel in languages which have accent signs, e.g. Lithuanian. It is possible to nasalize some consonants as well as vowels; nasalized spirants play an important part in the so-called " Yankee " pronunciation of Americans. (P. Gi.)

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

N

Naas
Nabataeans
Nabbes, Thomas
Nabha
Nabigha Dhubyani
Nabob
Nabua
Nacaire, Naker, Naquaire
Nachmanides
Nachod
Nachtigal, Gustav
Nadasdy, Tamas
Naden, Constance Caroline Woodhill
Nadia, Bengal
Nadia, District Of
Nadim
Nadir
Naegeli, Karl Wilhelm Von
Naestved
Naevius, Gnaeus
Naevus
Nag Ykikinda
Naga Hills
Nagar
Nagarjuna
Nagasaki
Nagaur
Nagelsbach, Carl Friedrich
Nagina
Nagode
Nagoya
Nagpur
Nagy-Varad
Nagykanizsa
Nagyszeben
Nagyszombat
Nahe
Nahuatlan Stock
Nahum
Naik
Nail Violin
Nail
Naini Tal
Nairn
Nairne, Carolina, Baroness
Nairnshire
Nairobi
Naivasha
Najara, Israel Ben Moses
Najibabad
Nakhichevan-On-The-Don
Nakhichevan
Nakhon Sri Tammarat
Nakskov
Namaqualand
Namasudra
Name
Namur, Belgium
Nana Farna Vis
Nana Sahib
Nanaimo
Nancy
Nandair
Nandgaon
Nandi
Nandidrug
Nanga
Nankeen
Nanking
Nanning
Nansen, Fridtjof
Nansen, Hans
Nanterre
Nantes, Edict Of
Nantes
Nanteuil, Robert
Nanticoke
Nantucket
Nantwich
Naoroji, Dadabhai
Nap
Naphtali
Naphtha
Naphthalene
Napier And Ettrick, Francis Napier, Baron
Napier, John
Napier Of Magdala, Robert Cornelis Napier
Napier, Sir Charles James
Napier, Sir Charles
Napier, Sir William Francis Patrick
Napier
Naples, Kingdom Of
Naples
Napoleon, Card Game
Napoleon II
Napoleon III
Napoleon
Napoleonic Campaigns
Napoleonite
Naquet, Alfred Joseph
Nara, India
Nara, Japan
Narainganj
Narbonne-Lara, Louis Marie Jacques Amalric
Narbonne
Narborough, Sir John
Narcissus, Myth Of
Narcissus
Narcotics
Nardi, Jacopo
Nares, Sir George Strong
Nargile
Narni
Narragansett
Narses, Narseh, Narseus
Narses
Narsinghgarh
Narsinghpur
Narthex
Narva
Narvacan
Narvaez, Panfilo De
Narvaez, Ramon Maria
Narvik
Narwhal
Nascimento, Francisco Manoel De
Naseby
Nash, Richard
Nashe
Nashua
Nashville
Nasi, Joseph
Nasik
Nasir Khosrau
Nasirabad
Nasmyth, Alexander
Nasmyth, James
Nasr-Ed-Din
Nasrides, The
Nassarawa
Nassau
Nast, Thomas
Nasturtium
Natal, Brazil
Natal, South Africa
Natanz
Natchez
Nathanael
Nathubhoy, Sir Mangaldas
Natick
National Anthems Or Hymns
National Debt
National Workshops
Nationality
Natrolite
Nattier, Jean Marc
Natural Bridge
Natural Gas
Naturalism
Naturalization
Nauarchia
Nauck, Johann August
Naucrary
Naucratis
Naude, Gabriel
Naugatuck
Nauheim
Naulette
Naumachia
Naumachius
Naumann, Georg Amadeus Carl Friedrich
Naumburg
Naunton, Sir Robert
Naupactus
Nauplia
Nausea
Nausicaa
Nautch
Nautilus
Nauvoo
Navaho
Naval Operations
Navan
Navarino, Battle Of
Navarre
Navarrete, Juan Fernandez
Navarrete, Martin Fernandez De
Navarro, Pedro
Nave
Navel
Navigation Laws
Navigation
Navius, Attus
Navvy
Navy
Nawab
Nawabganj
Nawanagar
Nawawi
Naxos, Aegean Island
Naxos, Sicily
Nay
Nayagarh
Nayar
Nayler
Nazarenes
Nazareth
Nazarite
Nazarius
Neagh, Lough
Neal, Daniel
Neal, David Dalhoff
Neale, Edward Vansittart
Neale, John Mason
Neamtzu
Neander, Joachim
Neander, Johann August Wilhelm
Neanderthal
Neap
Nearchus
Neath
Nebo
Nebraska City
Nebraska
Nebuchadrezzar
Nebula
Nebular Theory
Necessitas
Necessity
Neck
Neckam, Alexander
Neckar
Neckargemund
Necker, Jacques
Necrology
Necromancy
Necropolis
Necrosis
Nectar
Need-Fire
Needle-Gun
Needle
Needlework
Neemuch
Neenah
Neer, Van Der
Neerwinden
Nees Von Esenbeck, Christian Gottfried
Neff, Felix
Negapatam
Negaunee
Negligence
Negotiable Instrument
Negri, Ada
Negri Sembilan
Negus
Nehavend
Nehemiah
Nehorensis Lacus
Neighbour
Neile, Richard
Neill, James George Smith
Neilson, Adelaide
Neisse, Rivers
Neisse
Nejd
Nejef
Neleus
Nellore
Nelson, British Columbia
Nelson, Horatio Nelson, Viscount
Nelson, Lancashire
Nelson, New Zealand
Nelson River
Nelson, Robert
Nelsonville
Nematoda
Nematomorpha
Nemertina
Nemesianus, Marcus Aurelius Olympius
Nemesis
Nemesius
Nemours, Lords And Dukes Of
Nemours, Louis Charles Philippe Raphael
Nemours
Nenadovich, Mateya
Nenagh
Nennius
Neo-Caesarea, Synod Of
Neocomian
Neocorate
Neolithic
Neophyte
Neoplatonism
Neoptolemus
Neopythagoreanism
Nepal, Nepaul
Nepenthes
Nepheline-Syenite
Nepheline
Nephelinites
Nephew
Nepi
Nepomuk
Nepos, Cornelius
Nepos, Julius
Neptune, God
Neptune, Planet
Nerbudda
Nerchinsk Mining District
Nerchinsk
Nereus
Nergal
Neri, Philip
Nero
Nerva, Marcus Cocceius
Nerval, Gerard De
Nerve
Nervi
Nervous System
Nesfield, William Eden
Nesle
Nesselrode, Karl Robert, Count
Nest
Nestor, 11th Century Russian Chronicler
Nestor, Greek Myth
Nestor Parrots
Nestorians
Nestorius
Neszler, Victor
Net
Netherlands India
Netherlands
Nethersole, Olga
Nethinim
Netley
Netscher, Caspar
Nettle Tree
Nettle
Nettlerash
Nettleship, Henry
Nettleship, Richard Lewis
Nettuno
Netze
Neu-Brandenburg
Neu-Stettin
Neu-Strelitz
Neubreisach
Neuburg
Neuchatel, Canton Of
Neuchatel, Lake Of
Neuchatel, Switzerland
Neuenahr
Neuendorf
Neufch Ateau
Neuhaldensleben
Neuhof, Theodore Stephen, Baron Von
Neuhopathology
Neuilly-Sur-Seine
Neumann, Franz Ernst
Neumann, Karl Friedrich
Neumayr, Melchior
Neumunster
Neunkirchen
Neuquen
Neuralgia
Neurasthenia
Neuri
Neuritis
Neuroptera
Neusalz
Neuss
Neustadt-An-Der-Haardt
Neustadt
Neustria
Neutitschein
Neutrality
Neuville, Alphonse Marie De
Neuweiler
Neuwied
Neva
Nevada City, California
Nevada, Missouri
Nevada, Usa
Neve
Nevers
Neville, George
Neville, Ralph
Neville
Nevin, John Williamson
Nevis
Nevyansk, Nevyanskiy
New Abbey
New Albany
New Amsterdam
New Bedford
New Brighton, New York
New Brighton, Pennsylvania
New Britain
New Brunswick, Canada
New Brunswick, New Jersey
New Caledonia
New Castle, Delaware
New England
New Forest
New Glarus
New Glasgow
New Granada
New Guinea
New Hampshire
New Haven
New Hebrides
New Iberia
New Jersey
New Jerusalem Church
New Kensington
New London
New Madrid
New Mecklenburg
New Merv
New Mexico
New Mills
New Orleans
New Philadelphia
New Plymouth
New Pomerania
New Rochelle
New Ross
New Siberia Archipelago
New South Wales
New Ulm
New Washington
New Westminster
New Year's Day
New York City
New York State
New Zealand
Newark, David Leslie, Lord
Newark, New Jersey
Newark, Ohio
Newark-Upon-Trent
Newbern
Newberry, John Strong
Newbolt, Henry John
Newborn
Newburgh, New York
Newburgh, Scotland
Newbury
Newburyport
Newcastle, Australia
Newcastle, Dukes Of
Newcastle, Ireland
Newcastle, Pennsylvania
Newcastle-Under-Lyme
Newcastle-Upon-Tyne
Newcomb, Simon
Newcomen, Matthew
Newcomen, Thomas
Newdigate, Sir Roger
Newel
Newfoundland
Newhaven
Newlands, John Alexander Reina
Newlyn
Newman, Francis William
Newman, John Henry
Newmarch, William
Newmarket
Newmilns
Newport, Isle Of Wight
Newport, Kentucky
Newport, Monmouth
Newport News
Newport Pagnell
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport, Shropshire
Newquay
Newry
Newspapers
Newt
Newton Abbot
Newton, Alfred
Newton-In-Makerfield
Newton, John, English Divine
Newton, John
Newton, Kansas
Newton, Massachusetts
Newton, Sir Charles Thomas
Newton, Sir Isaac
Newtown, Montgomery
Newtown, New South Wales
Newtownards
Next Friend
Ney, Michel
Nez Perces
Ngami
Ngan-Hdi
Niagara Falls
Niagara, Fort
Niagara
Niam-Niam
Nias
Nibelungenlied
Nicaea, Council Of
Nicaea
Nicander
Nicanor
Nicaragua
Nicastro
Niccoli, Niccolo De
Niccolite
Nice, France
Nice
Nicephorus Callistus Xanthopoulos
Nicephorus I
Nicephorus II
Nicephorus III
Nicephorus Patriarcha
Niche
Nichol, John
Nicholas, Henry
Nicholas I Of Russia
Nicholas II
Nicholas, King Of Montenegro
Nicholas Of Basel
Nicholas Of Guildford
Nicholas, Sir Edward
Nichols, John
Nicholson, Henry Alleyne
Nicholson, John
Nicholson, William
Nicias, Artist
Nicias, Athenian Statesman
Nickel
Nickname
Nicobar Islands
Nicohachus
Nicol, James
Nicol, William
Nicolai, Christoph Friedrich
Nicolai, Otto
Nicolas, Sir Nicholas Harris
Nicolaus Damascenus
Nicolaus Of Lyra
Nicolay
Nicole, Pierre
Nicoll, Robert
Nicoll, Sir William Robertson
Nicolls, Richard
Nicolson, William
Nicomachus
Nicomedes II
Nicomedes III
Nicomedes
Nicomedia
Nicopolis
Nicosia, Cyprus
Nicosia, Sicily
Nicotera, Giovanni
Nicotine
Nictheroy
Nidification
Niebuhr, Barthold Georg
Niebuhr, Karsten
Nieder-Selters
Niederbronn
Niederlahnstein
Niederwald
Niehaus, Charles Henry
Niel, Adolphe
Niello
Niem
Niemcewicz, Julian Ursin
Nienburg On The Saale
Nienburg On The Weser
Niepce, Joseph Nicephore
Nieremberg, Juan Eusebio
Nierstein
Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm
Nieuport
Nievre
Nifo, Agostino
Nigdeh
Nigel
Niger, Gaius Pescennius
Niger
Nigeria
Night
Nightingale, Florence
Nightingale
Nightshade
Nigra, Costantino, Count
Nihilism
Niigata
Nijar
Nijmwegen, Nimeguen, Nymegen
Nikaya
Nike
Nikisch, Arthur
Nikitin, Athanasius
Nikko
Nikolayev
Nikolayevsk, Samara
Nikolayevsk, Siberia
Nikolayevskaya, Sloboda
Nikolsburg
Nikon
Nikopol
Nikopoli
Nikshich
Nile, Battle Of The
Nile
Niles
Nilgai
Nilgiris, The
Nilsson, Christine
Nimar
Nimes, Councils Of
Nimes
Nimrod
Nine Men's Morris
Nineveh
Ning-Po
Ninian, St
Ninib
Ninus
Niobe
Niort
Nipigon
Nipissing
Nippur
Niriz
Nirvana
Nisard, Jean Marie Napoleon Desire
Nisbett, Louisa Cranstoun
Nish
Nishapur, Persia
Nishapur Province
Nisi Bis
Nisi Prius
Nisus
Nithard
Nithsdale, William Maxwell, Sth Earl Of
Nitre
Nitric Acid
Nitro Compounds
Nitrobenzene
Nitrogen
Nitroglycerin
Nitzsch, Karl Immanuel
Nitzsch
Niu-Chwang Nivernais
Niu-Chwang
Nivelles
Nivernais, Louis Charles Barbon Mancini Mazarini
Nixie
Nixon, John
Nizam
Nizami
Nizhne-Tagilsk
Nizhne-Udinsk
Nizhniy-Novgorod, Government Of
Nizhniy-Novgorod, Russia
Noah
Noailles
Noakhali
Nobel, Alfred Bernhard
Nobili, Leopoldo
Nobilior, Marcus Fulvius
Nobility
Noble, Sir Andrew
Noblesville
Nocera Inferiors
Nocera Umbra
Nocturn
Noddy
Node
Nodier, Charles
Noeggerath, Johann Jacob
Noel, Roden Berkeley Wriothesley
Noetus
Nogaret, Guillaume De
Nogent-Le-Rotrou
Nogent-Sur-Marne Nola
Nogent-Sur-Marne
Nogent-Sur-Seine
Nogi, Kiten, Count
Noirmoutier
Noise
Noisome
Nokes
Nola
Noldeke, Theodor
Noli
Nolle Prosequi
Nollekens, Joseph
Nollet, Jean Antoine
Nomad
Nome
Nomenoe
Nomentana, Via
Nomentum
Nominalism
Nonconformist
Nonconformity, Law Relating To
Nonfeasance, Misfeasance, Malfeasance
Nonius Marcellus
Nonjurors
Nonnus
Nonpareil, Bird
Nonpareil
Nonsuit
Noodt, Gerhard
Noon
Nora
Norba
Norbanus, Gaius
Norcia
Nord
Nordau, Max Simon
Norden, John
Norden
Nordenskiold, Nils Adolf Erik, Baron
Norderney
Nordfjord
Nordhausen
Nordica, Lilian
Nordin, Carl
Nordlingen
Nore, The
Norfolk, Earls And Dukes Of
Norfolk Island
Norfolk, Nebraska
Norfolk, Virginia
Norfolk
Noricum
Norman, Oklahoma
Norman, Sir Henry Wylie
Normanby, Constantine Henry Phipps, 1st Marquess Of
Normandy
Normans
Normanton, Queensland
Normanton, Yorkshire
Norns
Norris, Frank
Norris, Henry Norris
Norris, John
Norris, Sir John
Norris, William Edward
Norristown
Norrkoping
North Adams
North America
North, Barons
North Berwick
North Cape
North Carolina
North Dakota
North Holland
North, Marianne
North, Roger
North Sea Fisheries Convention
North Sea
North Shields
North, Sir Dudley
North, Sir Thomas
North Sydney
North Tona Wanda
North Walsham
North-West Frontier Province
North-West Territories
Northallerton
Northampton, Assize Of
Northampton, Earls And Marquesses Of
Northampton, England
Northampton, Massachusetts
Northamptonshire
Northbrook, Thomas George Baring, 1st Earl Of
Northcote, James
Northeim
Norther
Northfield, Minnesota
Northfield, Vermont
Northfleet
Northington, Robert Henley
Northumberland, Earls And Dukes Of
Northumberland, John Dudley, Viscount Lisle
Northumberland, John Neville, Earl
Northumberland
Northumbria
Northwich
Norton, Caroline Elizabeth Sarah
Norton, Charles Bowyer Adderley, 1st Baron
Norton, Charles Eliot
Norton, Thomas
Norwalk, Connecticut
Norwalk, Ohio
Norway
Norwegian Literature
Norwegian Sea
Norwich, Connecticut
Norwich, England
Norwich, George Goring, Earl Of
Norwich, New York
Norwood, London
Norwood, Massachusetts
Norwood, Ohio
Norzagaray
Nosairis
Nosari
Nose
Nosology
Nossen
Nossi-Be
Nostalgia
Nostradamus
Nostrum
Notary
Note
Nothomb, Jean Baptiste, Baron
Notice
Notker
Noto
Nott, Eliphalet
Nott, Sir William
Nottingham, Charles Howard, 1st Earl Of
Nottingham, Earls Of
Nottingham
Nottinghamshire
Noumenon
Nova Scotia
Novaliches, Manuel Pavia
Novalis
Novara
Novatianus
Novation
Novaya Zemlya
Novel
Novelda
Novelli, Ermete
Novello, Vincent
November
Noverre, Jean Georges
Novgorod, Government Of
Novgorod, Russia
Novi Ligure
Novibazar, Novi-Bazar
Novice
Novo-Bayazet
Novo-Radomsk
Novocherkassk
Novogeorgievsk
Novomoskovsk
Novorossiysk
Nowell, Alexander
Nowgong
Nowshera
Noy, William
Noyon
Nozu, Michitsura, Marquess
Nubar Pasha
Nubia
Nuble
Nuceria Alfaterna
Nucleus
Nuer
Nueva San Salvador
Nuevo Leon
Nugent, Robert Nugent, Earl
Nuisance
Nukha
Nullah
Nullification
Numa Pompilius
Numantia
Number
Numbers, Book Of
Numbers, Partition Of
Numenius
Numeral
Numerianus, Marcus Aurelius
Numidia
Numismatics
Nummdlite, Nummulites
Nun
Nunatak
Nuncio
Nuncomar
Nuneaton
Nunez Cabeza De Vaca, Alvaro
Nunez De Arce, Caspar
Nunez, Pedro
Nuoro
Nupe
Nuremberg
Nurse
Nursing
Nushki
Nusku
Nusretabad
Nut
Nutation
Nutcracker
Nuthatch
Nutmeg
Nutrition
Nuttall, Thomas
Nuwara Eliya
Nux Vomica
Nyack
Nyanza
Nyasa
Nyborg
Nyckelharpa
Nye, Edgar Wilson
Nyezhin
Nyiregyhaza
Nykjobing
Nykoping
Nylstroom
Nymphaeum
Nymphenburg
Nymphs

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