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THE LETTER J - A letter of the alphabet which, as far as form is concerned, is only a modification of the Latin I and dates back with a separate value only to the 15th century. It was first used as a special form of initial I, the ordinary form being kept for use in other positions. As, however, in many cases initial i had the consonantal value of the English y in iugum (yoke), etc., the symbol came to be used for the value of y, a value which it still retains in German: Jal Jung, etc. Initially it is pronounced in English as an affricate dzh. The great majority of English words beginning with j are (i) of foreign (mostly French) origin, as "jaundice," "judge"; (2) imitative of sound, like " jar " (the verb); or (3) influenced by analogy, like " jaw " (influenced by chaw, according to Skeat) . In early French g when palatalized by e or i sounds became confused with consonantal i (y), and both passed into the sound of .;' which is still preserved in English. A similar sound-change takes place in other languages, e.g. Lithuanian, where the resulting sound is spelt dz. Modern French and also Provencal and Portuguese have changed j=dzh into z (zh). The sound initially is sometimes represented in English by g: gem, gaol as well as jail. At the end of modern English words the same sound is represented by -dge as in judge, French juge. In this position, however, the sound occurs also in genuine English words like bridge, sedge, singe, but this is true only for the southern dialects on which the literary language is founded. In the northern dialects the pronunciation as brig, seg, sing still survives. (P. Gi.)

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

J

Ja'alin
Jabiru
Jablochkov, Paul
Jablonski, Daniel Ernst
Jaborandi
Jaca
Jacamar
Jacana
Jacini, Step And, Count
Jacinth
Jack
Jackal
Jackdaw
Jackson, Andrew
Jackson, Cyril
Jackson, Frederick George
Jackson, Helen Maria
Jackson, Mason
Jackson, Michigan
Jackson, Mississippi
Jackson, Tennessee
Jackson, Thomas Jonathan
Jackson, Thomas
Jackson, William
Jacksonville, Florida
Jacksonville, Illinois
Jacob Ab Ad
Jacob Ben Asher
Jacob, John
Jacob Of Edessa
Jacob Of Juterbogk
Jacob Of Serugh
Jacob
Jacoba
Jacobean Style
Jacobi, Friedrich Heinrich
Jacobi, Johann Georg
Jacobi, Karl Gustav Jacob
Jacobins, The
Jacobite Church
Jacobites
Jacobs Cavern
Jacobs, Christian Friedrich Wilhelm
Jacob's Well
Jacobsen, Jens Peter
Jacobus De Voragine
Jacotot, Joseph
Jacquard, Joseph Marie
Jacquerie, The
Jactitation
Jade Estuary
Jade
Jaen Province
Jaen, Spain
Jafarabad
Jaffna
Jager, Gustav
Jagerndorf
Jagersfontein
Jaguar
Jaguarondi
Jahanabad
Jahangir
Jahiz
Jahn, Friedrich Ludwio
Jahn, Johann
Jahn, Otto
Jahrum
Jains
Jaipur
Jaisalmer
Jajce
Jakob, Ludwig Heinrich Von
Jakova
Jakuns
Jalalabad
Jalap
Jalapa, Xalapa
Jalaun
Jalisco, Xalisco
Jalna
Jalpaiguri
Jamaica, New York
Jamaica
Jamb
James, David
James Douglas, 4th Duke Of Halmilton
James, Epistle Of
James Francis Edward Stuart, Aka James III
James, George Payne Rainsford
James, Henry
James I The Conqueror
James IV
James, John Angell
James, New Testament
James Of Armagnac
James Of Hereford, Henry James, 1st Baron
James, Thomas
James, William, Naval Historian
James, William, Philosopher
James
Jameson, Anna Brownell
Jameson, Leander Starr
Jameson, Robert
Jameson
Jamestown, New York
Jamestown, North Dakota
Jamestown, Virginia
Jamieson, John
Jamieson, Robert
Jamkhandi
Jammu
Jamnia
Jamrud
Jams And Jellies
Jan Mayen
Janesville
Janet, Paul
Jangipur
Janin, Jules Gabriel
Janissaries
Janiuay
Janjira
Jansen, Cornelius
Jansenism
Janssen, Johannes
Janssen, Pierre Jules
Janssen
Janssens Van Nuyssen, Abraham
Janssens, Victor Honorius
Januarius, Saint
January
Janus
Jaoo, Richard
Jaora
Japan
Japanning
Japheth
Jar
Jargon
Jargoon
Jarir Ibn 'atiyya Ul-Khatfi
Jarnac
Jaro
Jarosite
Jarrah Wood
Jarrow
Jarry, Nicolas
Jarvis, John Wesley
Jashar, Book Of
Jashpur
Jasmin, Jacques
Jasmine
Jason Of Cyrene
Jason
Jasper
Jassy
Jataka
Jath
Jats
Jaubert, Pierre Amedee Emilien Probe
Jaucourt, Arnail Francois, Marquis De
Jauer
Jauhari
Jaundice
Jaunpur
Jaunting-Car
Jauregui, Juan
Jauregui
Jaureguiberry, Jean Bernard
Jaures, Jean Leon
Java
Javelin
Jaw
Jawaliqi
Jawhar
Jaworow
Jay, John
Jay, William
Jay
Jealousy
Jean De Meun
Jean
Jeannette
Jeannin, Pierre
Jebb, John
Jebb, Sir Richard Claverhotjse
Jebeil
Jebel
Jedburgh
Jeejeebhoy
Jefferies, Richard
Jefferson City
Jefferson, Joseph
Jefferson, Thomas
Jeffersonville
Jeffrey, Francis Jeffrey, Lord
Jeffreys, George Jeffreys, 1st Baron
Jehoiachin
Jehoiakim
Jehol
Jehoram
Jehoshaphat
Jehovah
Jehu
Jekyll, Sir Joseph
Jellachich, Josef, Count
Jellinek, Adolf
Jemappes
Jena
Jenatsch
Jenghiz Khan
Jenkin, Henry Charles Fleeming
Jenkins, Robert
Jenkins, Sir Leoline
Jenks, Jeremiah Whipple
Jenne
Jenner, Edward
Jenner, Sir William, Bart
Jennet
Jenolan Caves
Jensen, Wilhelm
Jenyns, Soame
Jeopardy
Jephson, Robert
Jephthah
Jerahmeel
Jerba
Jerboa
Jerdan, William
Jeremiah
Jeremy, Epistle Of
Jerez De La Frontera
Jerez De Los Caballeros
Jericho
Jerkin
Jeroboam
Jerome, Jerome Klapka
Jerome Of Prague
Jerome, St
Jerrold, Douglas William
Jersey City
Jersey, Earls Of
Jersey
Jerusalem, Synod Of
Jerusalem
Jesi
Jesse, Edward
Jesse, John Heneage
Jesse
Jessel, Sir George
Jessore
Jester
Jesuati
Jesuits
Jesup, Morris Ketchum
Jesus Christ
Jet
Jethro
Jetty
Jeveros
Jevons, William Stanley
Jew, The Wandering
Jewel, John
Jewelry
Jewett, Sarah Orne
Jew's Ears
Jew's Harp
Jews
Jewsbury, Geraldine Endsor
Jezebel
Jezreel
Jhabua
Jhalawar
Jhang
Jhansi
Jhelum
Jhering, Rudolf Von
Jibitos
Jibuti
Jicarilla
Jidda
Jig
Jihad
Jimenes
Jind
Jingo
Jinn
Jirecek, Josef
Jirecek, Konstantin Josef
Jizakh
Joab
Joachim II
Joachim, Joseph
Joachim Of Floris
Joachim
Joan Of Arc
Joan
Joanes, Vicente
Joanna I
Joanna II
Joanna The Mad
Joash
Job
Job's Tears
Jobst
Jocasta
Jockey
Jodelle
Jodhpur
Joel, Manuel
Joel
Joffrin, Jules Francois Alexandre
Jogues, Isaac
Johanan Ben Zaccai
Johannesburg
Johannisberg
John Albert Of Poland
John Angelus
John De Pelham
John, Don The Older
John, Don The Younger
John Frederick Der Mittlere
John Frederick I The Magnanimous
John George I
John George II
John George III
John George IV
John, Gospel Of St
John Hampden
John Howard
John Hyrcanus I
John Hyrcanus II
John I, Duke Of Brabant And Lorraine
John I King Of Castile
John I Of Aragon
John I Of France
John I Of Portugal
John II King Of Casatile
John II Of Aragon
John II Of France
John II, The Perfect
John III Of Poland
John III Of Portugal
John IV Of Portugal
John King Of Bohemia
John, King Of Hungary
John, King Of Saxony
John Maurice Of Nassau
John Mowbray
John O' Groat's House
John Of Asia
John Of Beverley, St
John Of Brandenburg
John Of Brienne
John Of Damascus
John Of Hexham
John Of Ireland
John Of Ravenna
John Of Salisbury
John Of Swabia
John Of The Cross, St
John Philip Kemble
John, The Apostle
John The Baptist
John, The Epistles Of
John The Fearless
John The Steadfast
John V Of Portugal
John VI Of Portugal
John Walter II
John Walter III
John
Johns Hopkins University
Johnson, Andrew
Johnson, Benjamin
Johnson, Eastman
Johnson, Reverdy
Johnson, Richard Mentor
Johnson, Richard
Johnson, Samuel
Johnson, Sir Thomas
Johnson, Sir William
Johnson, Thomas
Johnston, Albert Sidney
Johnston, Alexander Keith
Johnston, Alexander
Johnston, Arthur
Johnston, Joseph Eggleston
Johnston, Sir Henry Hamilton
Johnstone
Johnstown, New York
Johnstown, Pennsylvania
Johor
Joigny
Joinder
Joinery
Joint
Joints, Anatomy
Joints, Geology
Jointure
Joinville, Francois Ferdinand Philippe Louis Marie, Prince De
Joinville, Jean, Sire De
Joinville
Joist
Jok Jakarta
Jokai, Maurus
Joliet
Jolly
Joly De Lotbiniere, Sir Henri Gustave
Jomini, Antoine Henri, Baron
Jommelli, Niccola
Jonah, Rabbi
Jonah
Jonas, Justus
Jonathan
Joncieres, Victorin
Jones, Alfred Gilpin
Jones, Ebenezer
Jones, Ernest Charles
Jones, Henry Arthur
Jones, Henry
Jones, Inigo
Jones, John Paul
Jones, John
Jones, Michael
Jones, Owen, British Architect
Jones, Owen, Welsh Antiquary
Jones, Richard
Jones, Sir Alfred Lewis
Jones, Sir William
Jones, Thomas Rupert
Jones, William
Jonkoping
Jonson, Ben
Joplin
Joppa
Jordaens, Jacob
Jordan, Camille
Jordan, Dorothea
Jordan, Thomas
Jordan, Wilhelm
Jordan
Jordanes
Jordanus
Joris, David
Jortin, John
Joseph, Father
Joseph Kimhi
Joseph, New Testament
Joseph Of Arimathaea
Joseph, Old Testament
Josephus, Flavius
Joshekan
Joshua, Book Of
Joshua The Stylite
Josiah Quincy
Josiah
Josippon
Joss
Jost, Isaak Markus
Jotunheim
Joubert, Barthelemy Catherine
Joubert, Joseph
Joubert, Petrus Jacobus
Jouffroy, Jean
Jouffroy, Theodore Simon
Jougs, Juggs
Joule, James Prescott
Jourdan, Jean Baptiste, Count
Journal
Journey
Jouvenet, Jean
Jouy, Victor Joseph Etienne De
Jovellanos
Jovellar
Jovian
Jovinianus
Jovius, Paulus
Jowett, Benjamin
Joyeuse Entree
Joyeuse
Ju-Jutsu
Juan Fernandez Islands
Juan Manuel, Don
Juangs
Juarez, Benito Pablo
Juba I
Juba II
Juba River
Jubbulpore
Jube
Jubilee Year
Jubilee
Jubilees, Book Of
Jucar
Jud, Leo
Judaea
Judah
Judas Iscariot
Judas-Tree Jude, Epistle Of
Judas-Tree
Judd, Sylvester
Jude, The General Epistle Of
Judge-Advocate-General
Judge
Judges, The Book Of
Judgment Debtor
Judgment Summons
Judgment
Judicature Acts
Judith, The Book Of
Judson, Adoniram
Juel, Jens
Juel, Niels
Jug
Juge, Boffille De
Juggernaut
Juggler
Jugurtha
Juju
Jujube
Jujuy
Jukes, Joseph Beete
Julian
Julich
Julien, Stanislas
Juliers
Jullien, Louis Antoine
Jullundur
July
Jumala
Jumieges
Jumilla
Jumna
Jumping-Hare
Jumping-Mouse
Jumping-Shrew
Jumping
Junagarh
Juncaceae
Junction City
June
Juneau
Jung Bahadur, Sir, Maharaja
Jung-Bunzlau
Jung, Johann Heinrich
Jungfrau
Jungle
Junianus Justinus
Junin
Juniper
Junius
Junk
Junker, Wilhelm
Junket
Juno
Junot, Andoche, Duke Of Abrantes
Junot, Laure, Duchess Of Abrantes
Junta
Jupiter, God
Jupiter, Planet
Jur
Jura, France
Jura Island
Jura Mountains
Jurassic
Jurat
Jurien De La Graviere, Jean Baptists Edmond
Jurieu, Pierre
Juris
Jurisdiction
Jurisprudence, Comparative
Jurisprudence
Jurjani
Jury
Jus Primae Noctis
Jus Relictae
Jusserand, Jean Adrien Antoine Jules
Jussieu, De
Justice Of The Peace
Justice
Justiciar
Justiciary, High Court Of
Justification
Justin I
Justin II
Justin Martyr
Justinian I
Justinian II
Jute
Juterbog
Jutes
Jutigalpa
Jutland
Juturna
Juvenal
Juvencus, Gaius Vettius Aquilinus
Juvenile Offenders
Juventas
Juxon, William

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