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THE LETTER G The form of this letter which is familiar to us is an invention of the Romans, who had previously converted the third symbol of the alphabet into a representative of a k-sound (see C). Throughout the whole of Roman history C remained as the symbol for G in the abbreviations C and Cn. for the proper names Gaius and Gnaeus. According to Plutarch (Roman Questions, 54, 59) the symbol for G was invented by Spurius Carvilius Ruga about 293 B.C. This probably means that he was the first person to spell his cognomen RVGA instead of RVCA. G came to occupy the seventh place in the Roman alphabet which had earlier been taken by Z, because between 450 B.C. and 350 B.C. the z-sounds of Latin passed into r, names like Papisius and Fusius in that period becoming Papirius and Furius (see Z), so that the letter z had become superfluous. According to the late writer Martianus Capella z was removed from the alphabet by the censor Appius Claudius Caecus in 312 B.C. To Claudius the insertion of G into the alphabet is also sometimes ascribed.

In the earliest form the difference from C is very slight, the lower lip of the crescent merely rising up in a straight line , but and are found also in republican times. In the earliest Roman inscription which was found in the Forum in 1899 the form is written from right to left, but the hollow at the bottom lip of the crescent is an accidental pit in the stone and not a diacritical mark. The unvoiced sound in this inscription is represented by K. The use of the new form was not firmly established till after the middle of the 3rd century B.C.

In the Latin alphabet the sound was always the voiced stop (as in gig) in classical times. Later, before e, g passed into a sound like the English y, so that words begin indifferently with g or j; hence from the Lat. generum (accusative) and Ianuarium we have in Ital. genero and Gennajo, Fr. gendre and janvier. In the ancient Umbrian dialect g had made this change between vowels before the Christian era, the inhabitant of Iguvium (the modern Gubbio) being in the later form of his native speech Iuvins, Lat. Iguvinus. In most cases in Mid. Eng. also g passed into a y sound; hence the old prefix ge of the past participle appears only as y in yclept and the like. But ng and gg took a different course, the g becoming an affricate d (dzh), as in singe, ridge, sedge, which in English before 1500 were senge, rigge, segge, and in Scotch are still pronounced sing, rig, seg. The affricate in words like gaol is of French origin (geôle), from a Late Lat. gabiola, out of caveola, a diminutive of the Lat. cavea.

The composite origin of English makes it impossible to lay down rules for the pronunciation of English g; thus there are in the language five words Gill, three of which have the g hard, while two have it soft: viz. (1) gill of a fish, (2) gill, a ravine, both of which are Norse, and (3) Gill, the surname, which is mostly Gaelic = White; and (4) gill a liquid measure, from O. Fr. gelle, Late Lat. gella in the same sense, and (5) Gill, a girl's name, shortened from Gillian, Juliana (see Skeat's Etymological Dictionary). No one of these words is of native origin; otherwise the initial g would have changed to y, as in Eng. yell from the O. Eng. gellan, giellan.

(P. Gi.)

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

G

Gabbro
Gabel, Kristoffer
Gabelentz, Hans Conon Von Der
Gabelle
Gaberdine
Gabes
Gabii
Gabinius, Aulus
Gabion
Gable
Gabler, Georg Andreas
Gabler, Johann Philipp
Gablets
Gablonz
Gaboriau, Emile
Gabriel Hounds
Gabriel
Gabrieli, Giovanni
Gabun
Gace Brule
Gachard, Louis Prosper
Gad
Gadag
Gadara
Gaddi
Gade, Niels Wilhelm
Gadolinium
Gadsden, Christopher
Gadsden, James
Gadwall
Gaekwar
Gaeta
Gaetani
Gaetulia
Gage, Lyman Judson
Gage, Thomas
Gage
Gagern, Hans Christoph Ernst
Gahanbar
Gaignieres, Francois Roger De
Gail, Jean Baptiste
Gaillac
Gaillard, Gabriel Henri
Gainesville, Florida
Gainesville, Texas
Gainsborough, Thomas
Gainsborough
Gairdner, James
Gairloch
Gaiseric
Gaisford, Thomas
Gaius Caesar
Gaius Laelius
Gaius Popillius Laenas
Gaius
Galago
Galangal
Galapagos Islands
Galashiels
Galatia
Galatians, Epistle To The
Galatina
Galatz
Galaxy
Galba, Servius Sulpicius
Galbanum
Galchas
Gale, Theophilus
Gale, Thomas
Gale
Galen, Christoph Bernhard
Galen, Claudius
Galena, Illionis
Galena, Kansas
Galena
Galeopithecus
Galerius
Galesburg
Galgacus
Galiani, Ferdinando
Galicia, Austria
Galicia, Spain
Galignani, Giovanni Antonio
Galilee, Architectural
Galilee, Sea Of
Galilee
Galileo Galilei
Galion
Gall, Franz Joseph
Gall
Gallabat
Gallait, Louis
Galland, Antoine
Gallarate
Gallars
Gallas, Matthias
Gallas
Gallatin, Albert
Gallaudet, Thomas Hopkins
Galle
Gallenga, Antonio Carlo Napoleone
Gallery
Galley
Gallia Cisalpina
Gallic Acid
Gallicanism
Gallieni, Joseph Simon
Gallienus, Publius Licinius Egnatius
Galliffet, Gaston Alexandre Auguste
Gallio, Junius Annaeus
Gallipoli, Italy
Gallipoli, Turkey
Gallipolis, Ohio
Gallitzin, Demetrius Augustine
Gallium
Gallon
Galloway, Joseph
Galloway, Scotland
Galloway, Thomas
Gallows
Galls
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Gallus, Cornelius
Gallus, Gaius Aelius
Gallus, Gaius Cestius
Gallus, Gaius Sulpicius
Galois, Evariste
Galston, Scotland
Galt, John
Galt, Sir Alexander Tilloch
Galt
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Galuppi, Baldassare
Galvani, Luigi
Galvanized Iron
Galvanometer
Galveston
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Gama, Vasco Da
Gamaliel
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Gambia
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Game
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Gamut
Gandak
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Gandia
Gando
Ganesa
Ganges
Gangotri
Gangpur
Gangrene
Ganilh, Charles
Ganjam
Gannal, Jean Nicolas
Gannet
Ganodonta
Gans, Eduard
Gansbacher, Johann Baptist
Gante
Ganymede
Gao
Gaol
Gaon
Gap
Gapan
Gar-Fish
Gararish
Garashanin, Iliya
Garat, Dominique Joseph
Garat, Pierre-Jean
Garay, Janos
Garble
Garcao, Pedro Antonio Joaquim Correa
Garcia De La Huerta, Vicente Antonio
Garcia De Paredes, Diego
Garcia Gutierrez, Antonio
Garcia, Manoel
Gard
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Gardane, Claude Matthieu
Gardelegen
Garden
Gardenia
Gardiner, James
Gardiner, Samuel Rawson
Gardiner, Stephen
Gardiner
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Gardner
Gare-Fowl
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Garganey
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Gargoyle
Garhwal
Garibaldi, Giuseppe
Garin Le Loherain
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Garlic
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Garnet
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Garnier, Clement Joseph
Garnier, Germain
Garnier, Jean Louis Charles
Garnier, Marie Joseph Francois
Garnier-Pages, Etienne Joseph Louis
Garnier, Robert
Garnish
Garo Hills
Garonne
Garret
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Garretting
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Garrison, William Lloyd
Garrison
Garrote
Garrucha
Garston
Garth, Sir Samuel
Gartok
Gary
Gas Engine
Gas
Gascoigne, George
Gascoigne, Sir William
Gascony
Gaskell, Elizabeth Cleghorn
Gassendi, Pierre
Gastein
Gastric Ulcer
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Gatchina
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Gateshead
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Gatty, Margaret
Gau, John
Gauden, John
Gaudichaud-Beaupre, Charles
Gaudry, Jean Albert
Gaudy
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Gauge
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Gaul
Gault
Gauntlet
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Gauss, Karl Friedrich
Gaussen, Francois Samuel Robert Louis
Gautier D'arras
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Gautier, Theophile
Gauze
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Gavelkind
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Gavotte
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Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis
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Gay, Walter
Gaya
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Gaza, Theodorus
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Gecko
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Geddes, Alexander
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Geddes, James Lorraine
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Gedymin
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Geel, Jacob
Geelong
Geestemunde
Geffcken, Friedrich Heinrich
Geffroy, Mathieu Auguste
Gefle
Gegenbaur, Carl
Gegenschein
Geibel, Emanuel
Geige
Geiger, Abraham
Geijer, Erik Gustaf
Geikie, James
Geikie, Sir Archibald
Geikie, Walter
Geiler
Geinitz, Hans Bruno
Geisha
Geislingen
Geissler, Heinrich
Gela
Gelada
Gelasius I, Pope
Gelasius II, Pope
Gelati
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Gelderland, History Of
Gelderland, Holland
Geldern
Gell, Sir William
Gellert, Christian Furchtegott
Gellert
Gellius, Aulus
Gellivara
Gelnhausen
Gelo
Gelsemium
Gelsenkirchen
Gem, Artificial
Gem
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Geoffroy, Etienne Francois
Geoffroy, Julien Louis
Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne
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George I Of Greece
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George V
George
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Georgetown, British Guiana
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Georgetown, Texas
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Georgian Bay
Georgswalde
Gephyrea
Gera
Geraldton
Gerando, Marie Joseph De
Geraniaceae
Geranium
Gerard, Archbishop Of York
Gerard, Etienne Maurice
Gerard, Francois
Gerard, Jean Ignace Isidore
Gerard, John
Gerard Of Cremona
Gerard Tum
Gerardmer
Gerasa
Gerault-Richard, Alfred Leon
Gerber, Ernst Ludwig
Gerberon, Gabriel
Gerbert, Martin
Gerbil
Gerenuk
Gergovia
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Gerhard, Johann
Gerhardt, Charles Frederic
Gerhardt, Paul
Gericault, Jean Louis Andre Theodore
Gerizim
Gerlache, Etienne Constantin
Gerle, Christophe Antoine
German Baptist Brethren
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German East Africa
German Evangelical Synod Of North America
German Language
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German Silver
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Germanic Laws, Early
Germanicus Caesar
Germanium
Germantown
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Germersheim
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Germonius, Anastasius
Gero
Gerolstein
Gerome, Jean Leon
Gerona Province
Gerona, Spain
Gerousia
Gerresheim
Gerrha
Gerrus
Gerry, Elbridge
Gerrymander
Gers
Gerson, John
Gersonides
Gersoppa, Falls Of
Gerstacker, Friedrich
Gerstenberg, Heinrich Wilhelm Von
Geruzez, Nicolas Eugene
Gervais, Paul
Gervase Of Canterbury
Gervase Of Tilbury
Gervex, Henri
Gervinus, Georg Gottfried
Geryon
Gesenius, Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm
Gesner, Abraham
Gesner, Johann Matthias
Gesner
Gessner, Solomon
Gesso
Gesta Romanorum
Geta, Publius Septimius
Getae
Gethsemane
Gettysburg
Geulincx, Arnold
Geum
Gevelsberg
Gex
Geyser
Gezer
Gfrorer, August Friedrich
Ghadames
Ghat
Ghats
Ghazali
Ghazi
Ghaziabad
Ghazipur
Ghazni
Ghee
Gheel
Ghent
Ghetto
Ghiberti, Lorenzo
Ghica
Ghilzai
Ghirlandajo, Domenico
Ghirlandajo, Ridolfo
Ghor
Ghost Dance
Ghost
Giacometti, Paolo
Giambelli
Giannone, Pietro
Giannutri
Giant
Giant's Causeway
Giant's Kettle
Giaour
Gib, Adam
Gibara
Gibbon, Edward
Gibbon
Gibbons, Grinling
Gibbons, James
Gibbons, Orlando
Gibbs, Josiah Willard
Gibbs, Oliver Wolcott
Gibeon
Gibeonites
Gibraltar
Gibson, Charles Dana
Gibson, Edmund
Gibson, John
Gibson, Thomas Milner
Gibson, William Hamilton
Gichtel, Johann Georg
Giddings, Joshua Reed
Gideon
Giebel, Christoph Gottfried Andreas
Gien
Giers, Nicholas Karlovich De
Giesebrecht, Wilhelm Von
Gieseler, Johann Karl Ludwig
Giessen
Giffard, Godfrey
Giffard, Walter
Giffard, William
Giffen, Sir Robert
Gifford, Robert Swain
Gifford, Sandford Robinson
Gifford, William
Gift
Gifu
Gig
Giglio
Gijon
Gilbart, James William
Gilbert, Alfred
Gilbert, Ann
Gilbert De La Porree
Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmond
Gilbert Foliot
Gilbert, Grove Karl
Gilbert, John
Gilbert, Marie Dolores Eliza Rosanna
Gilbert, Nicolas Joseph Laurent
Gilbert Of Sempringham, St
Gilbert, Sir Humphrey
Gilbert, Sir John
Gilbert, Sir Joseph Henry
Gilbert, Sir William Schwenk
Gilbert, William
Gilbert
Gilbey, Sir Walter, 1st Bart
Gildas
Gilder, Richard Watson
Gildersleeve, Basil Lanneau
Gilding
Gilds
Gilead
Giles
Gilfillan, George
Gilgal
Gilgamesh, Epic Of
Gilgit
Gill, John
Gill
Gilles De Roye
Gilles Li Muisis
Gillespie, Thomas
Gillie
Gillies, John
Gillingham
Gillot, Claude
Gillott, Joseph
Gillow, Robert
Gillray, James
Gillyflower
Gilmore, Patrick Sarsfield
Gilsonite
Gilyaks
Gimbal
Gimlet
Gimli
Gimp
Gin
Gindely, Anton
Gingall
Ginger
Gingham
Gingi
Ginguene, Pierre Louis
Ginkel, Godart Van
Ginkgoales
Ginsburg, Christian David
Ginseng
Gioberti, Vicenzio
Gioiosa-Ionica
Gioja, Melchiorre
Giolitti, Giovanni
Giordano, Luca
Giorgione
Giottino
Giotto Di Bondone
Gipsies
Giraffe
Giraldi, Giglio Gregorio
Giraldi, Giovanni Battista
Giraldus Cambrensis
Girandole
Girard, Jean Baptists
Girard, Philippe Henri De
Girard, Stephen
Girardin, Delphine De
Girardin, Emile De
Girardon, Francois
Girart De Roussillon
Giraud, Giovanni, Count
Girdle
Girga
Girgenti
Girishk
Girnar
Girodet De Roussy, Anne Louis
Gironde
Girondists
Girtin, Thomas
Girvan
Giry
Gisborne
Gislebert
Gisors
Gissing, George Robert
Gitschin
Giudici, Paolo Emiliano
Giulio Romano
Giunta Pisano
Giurgevo
Giusti, Giuseppe
Giustiniani
Giusto Da Guanto
Givet
Givors
Gjallar
Glabrio
Glace Bay
Glacial Period
Glacier
Glacis
Gladbach
Gladden, Washington
Gladiators
Gladiolus
Gladsheim
Gladstone, John Hall
Gladstone, William Ewart
Gladstone
Glagolitic
Glair
Glaisher, James
Glamis
Glamorganshire
Glanders
Glanvill, Ranulf De
Glanvill
Glapthorne, Henry
Glarus Canton
Glarus
Glas, George
Glas, John
Glaser, Christopher
Glasgow
Glasites
Glass Cloth
Glass, Stained
Glass
Glassbrenner, Adolf
Glassius, Salomo
Glastonbury
Glatigny, Joseph Albert Alexandre
Glatz
Glauber, Johann Rudolf
Glauber's Salt
Glauchau
Glauconite
Glaucous
Glaucus
Glazing
Glazunov, Alexander Constantinovich
Glebe
Glee
Gleichen
Gleim, Johann Wilhelm Ludwig
Gleiwitz
Glen Grey
Glenalmond
Glencairn, Earls Of
Glencoe
Glencorse, John Inglis, Lord
Glendalough, Vale Of
Glendower, Owen
Glenelg
Glengarriff
Glens Falls
Glentilt
Gleyre, Marc Charles Gabriel
Gliddon, George Robins
Glinka, Fedor Nikolaevich
Glinka, Michael Ivanovich
Glinka, Sergy Nikolaevich
Globe-Fish
Globigerina
Glockenspiel
Glogau
Gloriosa
Glory
Gloss, Glossary
Glossop
Gloucester City
Gloucester, Earls And Dukes Of
Gloucester, England
Gloucester, Gilbert De Clare, Earl Of
Gloucester, Humphrey, Duke Of
Gloucester, Massachusetts
Gloucester, Richard De Clare, Earl Of
Gloucester, Robert, Earl Of
Gloucester, Thomas Of Woodstock, Duke Of
Gloucestershire
Glove
Glover, Richard
Glover, Sir John Hawley
Gloversville
Glow-Worm
Gloxinia
Glucinum
Gluck
Glucksburg
Gluckstadt
Glucose
Glucoside
Glue
Glutaric Acid
Gluten
Glutton
Glycas, Michael
Glycerin, Glycerine
Glycols
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Glyph
Glyptodon
Glyptothek
Gmelin
Gmund
Gmunden
Gnat
Gnathopoda
Gnatia
Gneisenau, August Wilhelm Anton
Gneiss
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Gnesen
Gnetales
Gnome, And Gnomic Poetry
Gnomes
Gnomon
Gnosticism
Gnu
Go
Goa
Goal
Goalpara
Goat
Goatsucker
Gobat, Samuel
Gobelin
Gobi
Goblet, Ren
Goby
Goch
God
Godalming
Godard, Benjamin Louis Paul
Godavari River
Godavari
Godefroy
Godesberg
Godet, Frederic Louis
Godfrey Of Bouillon
Godfrey Of Viterbo
Godfrey, Sir Edmund Berry
Godhra
Godin, Jean Baptiste Andre
Godiva
Godkin, Edwin Lawrence
Godmanchester
Godollo
Godolphin, Sidney Godolphin, Earl
Godoy, Alvarez De Faria, Rios Sanchez
Godroon
Godwin-Austen, Robert Alfred Cloyne
Godwin, Francis
Godwin, Mary Wollstonecraft
Godwin, William
Godwine
Godwit
Goeben, August Karl Von
Goeje, Michael Jan De
Goes, Damiao De
Goes, Hugo Van Der
Goes
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Von
Goetz, Hermann
Goffe
Goffer
Gog
Gogo
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Gogra
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Gohier, Louis Jerome
Gohpers, Samuel
Gohrde
Goito
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Gokak
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Goldie, Sir George Dashwood Taubman
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Golding En
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Goldoni, Carlo
Golds
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Goldsmith, Lewis
Goldsmith, Oliver
Goldstucker, Theodor
Goldziher, Ignaz
Goletta
Golf
Goliad
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Golitsuin, Vasily Vasilevich
Golius
Gollnow
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Golovkin, Gavriil Ivanovich, Codnt
Golovnin, Vasily Mikhailovich
Goltz, Bogumil
Goltz, Colmar, Freiherr Von Der
Goltzius, Hendrik
Goluchowski, Agenor, Count
Gomal
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Gomer
Gomera
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Gomez, Diogo
Gomm, Sir William Maynard
Gomperz, Theodor
Gonaguas
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Goncharov, Ivan Alexandrovich
Goncourt, De
Gonda
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Gondophares
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Gong
Gongora
Goniometer
Gontaut, Marie Josephine Louise, Duchesse De
Gonvile, Edmund
Gonzaga, Thomaz Antonio
Gonzaga
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Gooch, Sir Daniel
Good Friday
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Goodman, Godfrey
Goodrich, Samuel Griswold
Goodrich
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Goodwill
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Goodwin, Nathaniel Carl
Goodwin Sands
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Goodwin, William Watson
Goodwood
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Googe, Barnabe
Goole
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Gordon-Gumming, Roualeyn George
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Gordon, Patrick
Gordon, Sir John Watson
Gordon
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Gore, Charles
Gore
Goree
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Gorges, Sir Ferdinando
Gorget
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Gorgonzola
Gori
Gorilla
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Gorki, Maxim
Gorlitz
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Gorsas, Antoine Joseph
Gorst, Sir John Eldon
Gorton, Samuel
Gorton
Gortyna
Gortz, Georg Heinrich Von, Baron Von Schlitz
Gorz And Gradisca
Gorz
Gos-Hawk
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Goshen, Indiana
Goslar
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Goslin
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Gospatric
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Gosport
Goss, Sir John
Gossamer
Gosse, Edmund
Gosse, Philip Henry
Gossec, Francois Joseph
Gossip
Gossner, Johannes Evangelista
Gosson, Stephen
Got, Francois Jules Edmond
Gota
Gotarzes
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Gothenburg
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Goths
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Gottfried Von Strassburg
Gottingen
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Gottschalk
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Gottsched, Johann Christoph
Gotz, Johann Nikolaus
Gouache
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Goudimel, Claude
Gouffier
Gouge, Martin
Gouge
Gough, Hugh Gough, Viscount
Gough, John Bartholomew
Gough, Richard
Goujet, Claude Pierre
Goujon, Jean Marie Claude Alexandre
Goujon, Jean
Goulburn, Edward Meyrick
Goulburn, Henry
Goulburn
Gould, Augustus Addison
Gould, Benjamin Apthorp
Gould, Jay
Gould, Sir Francis Carruthers
Gounod, Charles Francois
Gourd
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Gourko, Joseph Vladimirovich, Count
Gourmet
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Gout
Gouthiere, Pierre
Gouvion Saint-Cyr, Laurent, Marquis De
Govan
Government
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Gow, Niel
Gower, John
Gower
Gown
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Goyen, Jan Josephszoon Van
Gozlan, Leon
Gozo
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Gozzi, Gasparo, Count
Gozzoli, Benozzo
Graaff Reinet
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Grabe, John Ernest
Gracchus
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Grace
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