About Maximapedia

THE LETTER E - The fifth symbol in the English alphabet occupies also the same position in Phoenician and in the other alphabets descended from Phoenician. As the Semitic alphabet did not represent vowels, E was originally an aspirate. Its earliest form, while writing is still from right to left, is , the upright being continued some distance below the lowest of the cross-strokes. In some of the Greek alphabets it appears as with the upright prolonged at both top and bottom, but it soon took the form with which we are familiar, though in the earlier examples of this form the cross-strokes are not horizontal but drop at an angle, . In Corinth and places under its early influence like Megara, or colonized from it like Corcyra, the symbol for e takes the form or , while at Sicyon in the 6th and 5th centuries B.C. it is represented by . In early Latin it was sometimes represented by two perpendicular strokes of equal length, .

In the earliest Greek inscriptions and always in Latin the symbol represented both the short and the long e-sound. In Greek also it was often used for the close long sound which arose either by contraction of two short e-sounds or by the loss of a consonant, after a short e-sound, as in , "you love," for , and , "bright," out of an earlier . The Ionian Greeks of Asia Minor, who had altogether lost the aspirate, were the first to use the symbol for the long e-sound, and in official documents at Athens down to 403 B.C., when the Greek alphabet as still known was adopted by the state, represented ε, η and the sound arising by contraction or consonant loss as mentioned above which henceforth was written with two symbols, , and being really a single sound is known as the "spurious diphthong." There were some minor distinctions in usage of the symbols and which need not here be given in detail. The ancient Greek name was , not Epsilon as popularly supposed; the names of the Greek letters are given from Kallias, an earlier contemporary of Euripides, in Athenaeus x. p. 453 d.

In Greek the short e-sound to which was ultimately limited was a close sound inclining more towards i than a; hence the representation of the contraction of by . Its value in Latin was exactly the opposite, the Latin short e being open, and the long close. In English there has been a gradual narrowing of the long vowels, a becoming approximately ēi and ē becoming i (Sweet, History of English Sounds, §§ 781, 817 ff. 2nd ed.). In languages where the diphthong ai has become a monophthong, the resulting sound is some variety of long e. Often the gradual assimilation can be traced through the intermediate stage of ae to ē, as in the Old Latin aidilis, which in classical Latin is aedilis, and in medieval MSS. edilis.

The variety of spelling in English for the long and short e-sounds is conveniently illustrated in Miss Soames's Introduction to the Study of Phonetics, pp. 16 and 20.

(P. Gi.)

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

E

Ea
Eabani
Eachard, John
Eadbald
Eadie, John
Eadmer
Eads, James Buchanan
Eagle
Eaglehawk
Eagre
Eakins, Thomas
Ealing
Ear-Ring
Ear
Earl Marshal
Earl
Earle, John
Earle, Ralph
Earlom, Richard
Earlston
Early English Period
Early, Jubal Anderson
Earn
Earnest
Earth Currents
Earth, Figure Of The
Earth-Nut
Earth Pillar
Earth-Star
Earth
Earthquake
Earthworm
Earwig
Easement
East, Alfred
East Anglia
East Chicago
East Grinstead
East Ham
East Hampton
East India Company
East Indies
East Liverpool
East London
East Orange
East Providence
East Prussia
East St
Eastbourne
Easter Island
Easter
Eastern Bengal And Assam
Eastern Question, The
Easthampton
Eastlake, Sir Charles Lock
Easton
Eastport
Eastwick, Edward Backhouse
Eaton, Dorman Bridgman
Eaton, Margaret O'neill
Eaton, Theophilus
Eaton, William
Eaton, Wyatt
Eau Claire
Eau De Cologne
Eaux-Bonnes
Eaves
Eavesdrip
Ebbw Vale
Ebel, Hermann Wilhelm
Ebel, Johann Gottfried
Eber, Paul
Eberbach Monastery
Eberbach
Eberhard, Christian August Gottlob
Eberhard, Johann Augustus
Eberhard
Eberlin, Johann Ernst
Ebers, Georg Moritz
Eberswalde
Ebert, Friedrich Adolf
Ebingen
Ebionites
Ebner-Eschenbach, Marie
Eboli
Ebony
Ebrard, Johannes Heinrich August
Ebro
Ebroin
Eburacum
Eca De Queiroz, Jose Maria
Ecarte
Ecbatana
Eccard, Johann
Eccelino
Eccentric
Ecchellensis
Eccles
Ecclesfield
Eccleshall
Ecclesia
Ecclesiastes
Ecclesiastical Commissioners
Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction
Ecclesiastical Law
Ecclesiasticus
Ecgbert, Archbishop Of York
Ecgbert, King Of The West Saxons
Ecgfrith
Ecgonine
Echegaray Y Eizaguirre, Jose
Echelon
Echidna
Echinoderma
Echinus
Echiuroidea
Echmiadzin
Echo
Echternach
Echuca
Ecija
Eck, Johann Maier
Eckermann, Johann Peter
Eckernforde
Eckersberg, Kristoffer
Eckhart, Johannes
Eckhel, Joseph Hilarius
Eckmuhl
Eclecticism
Eclipse
Ecliptic
Eclogite
Eclogue
Economic Entomology
Economics
Economy, Pennsylvania
Economy
Ecstasy
Ectospora
Ecuador
Eczema
Edam
Edda
Eddius
Edelinck, Gerard
Edelweiss
Eden Hall, Luck Of
Eden, Sir Ashley
Eden
Edenbridge
Edenkoben
Edentata
Edenton
Edessa, Macedonia
Edessa, Mesopotamia
Edfu
Edgar, King Of The English
Edgar The Aetheling
Edge Hill
Edgecumbe
Edgeworth De Firmont, Henry Essex
Edgeworth, Maria
Edgeworth, Richard Lovell
Edgren-Leffler, Anne Charlotte
Edhem Pasha
Edict
Edinburgh
Edinburghshire
Edison, Thomas Alva
Edmonton, Canada
Edmonton, England
Edmund I, King Of The English
Edmund Ironside
Edmund, King Of East Anglia
Edmund, King Of Sicily
Edmund, Saint
Edmunds, George Franklin
Edom
Edred
Edric
Education
Edward Fiennes Clinton
Edward I
Edward II
Edward III
Edward IV
Edward Law, 1st Baron Ellenborough
Edward Law, Earl Of Ellenborough
Edward Montagu
Edward Oliver
Edward Seymour
Edward Somerset
Edward The Black Prince
Edward The Confessor
Edward The Elder
Edward The Martyr
Edward V
Edward VI
Edward VII
Edwardes, Sir Herbert Benjamin
Edwards, Amelia Ann Blandford
Edwards, Bela Bates
Edwards, Bryan
Edwards, George
Edwards, Henry Thomas
Edwards, Jonathan
Edwards, Lewis
Edwards, Richard
Edwards, Thomas Charles
Edwardsville, Illinois
Edwardsville, Pennsylvania
Edwin, John
Edwin
Edwy
Eeckhout, Gerbrand Van Den
Eel
Effendi
Effigies, Monumental
Egan, Pierce
Egbo
Egede, Hans
Eger, Aqiba
Eger, Austria
Eger, Hungary
Egeria
Egerton, Sir Philip De Malpas Grey
Egg, Augustus Leopold
Egg
Eggenberg, Hans Ulrich Von
Egger, Emile
Eggleston, Edward
Egham
Egin
Eglantine
Eglinton, Earls Of
Egmont, Earls Of
Egmont
Egoism
Egorievsk
Egremont, Earls Of
Egremont
Egress
Egypt
Ehrenberg, Christian Gottfried
Ehrenbreitstein
Ehud
Eibenstock
Eichberg, Julius
Eichendorff, Joseph, Freiherr Von
Eichhorn, Johann Gottfried
Eichhorn, Karl Friedrich
Eichstatt
Eichwald, Karl Eduard Von
Eider
Eifel
Eiffel Tower
Eildon Hills
Eilenburg
Einbeck
Eindhoven
Einhard
Einhorn, David
Einsiedeln
Eisenach
Eisenberg
Eisenerz
Eisleben
Eisteddfod
Ejectment
Ekaterinburg
Ekaterinodar
Ekaterinoslav, Department Of
Ekaterinoslav, Town Of
Ekhof, Konrad
Ekron
El Dorado
El Obeid
El Paso
El Reno
El Teb
El Wad
Elabuga
Elam
Eland
Elasticity
Elaterite
Elaterium
Elba
Elbe
Elberfeld
Elbeuf
Elbing
Elbow
Elburz
Elche
Elchingen
Eldad Ben Mahli
Elder Tree
Elder
Eldon, John Scott
Elduayen, Jose De
Eleanor Of Aquitaine
Eleatic School
Elecampane
Election, English Law
Election
Electoral Commission
Electors
Electra
Electric Eel
Electric Waves
Electrical
Electricity Supply
Electricity
Electrochemistry
Electrocution
Electrokinetics
Electrolier
Electrolysis
Electromagnetism
Electrometallurgy
Electrometer
Electron
Electrophorus
Electroplating
Electroscope
Electrostatics
Electrotherapeutics
Electrotyping
Electrum
Elegit
Elegy
Element
Elemi
Elephant
Elephanta Isle
Elephantiasis
Elephant's-Foot
Elets
Eleusis
Eleutherius
Eleutheropolis
Elevators
Elf
Elgar, Sir Edward
Elgin And Kincardine, Earls Of
Elgin, Illinois
Elgin, Scotland
Elginshire
Elgon
Eli
Elias, John
Elias Levita
Elias
Elie De Beaumont, Jean Baptiste Armand Louis Leonce
Elie
Elijah Wilna
Elijah
Eliot, Charles William
Eliot, George
Eliot, John
Eliot, Sir John
Elis City
Elis, Philosophical School Of
Elis, Region Of, Greece
Elisavetgrad
Elisavetpol, Goevernment Of
Elisavetpol
Elisha Ben Abuyah
Elisha
Elixir
Elizabeth Amelie Eugenie De Wittelsbach
Elizabeth City
Elizabeth, Madame
Elizabeth, New Jersey
Elizabeth Of Wied
Elizabeth Petrovna
Elizabeth, Princess
Elizabeth, Queen Of Hearts
Elizabeth, Saint
Elizabeth Whttlock
Elizabeth
Elizabethan Style
Elk
Elkhart
Elkington, George Richards
Ella
Elland
Ellery, William
Ellesmere, Francis Egerton
Ellesmere
Ellice Islands
Ellichpur
Elliotson, John
Elliott, Ebenezer
Ellipse
Ellipsoid
Ellipticity
Ellis, George
Ellis, Robinson
Ellis, Sir Henry
Ellis, William
Ellis
Elliston, Robert William
Ellora
Ellore
Ellsworth, Oliver
Ellsworth
Ellwangen
Ellwood, Thomas
Elm
Elmacin
Elmali
Elmes, Harvey Lonsdale
Elmes, James
Elmham, Thomas
Elmina
Elmira
Elmshorn
Elmsley, Peter
Elne
Eloi
Elongation
Elphinstone, Mountstuart
Elphinstone, William
Elsfleth
Elsinore
Elssler, Fanny
Elster
Elswick
Elton, Charles Isaac
Eltville
Eltz
Elvas
Elvey, Sir George Job
Elvira, Synod Of
Elwood
Ely, Richard Theodore
Ely
Elyot, Sir Thomas
Elyria
Elysium
Elze, Karl
Elzevir
Emanation
Emanuel I
Embalming
Embankment
Embargo
Embassy
Ember Days
Embezzlement
Emblem
Emblements
Embossing
Embracery
Embrasure
Embroidery
Embrun
Embryology
Emden
Emerald
Emeric-David, Toussaint-Bernard
Emeritus
Emerson, Ralph Waldo
Emerson, William
Emery
Emetics
Emeu
Emigration
Emil Wilhelm Krummacher
Emilia
Emin Pasha
Eminence
Eminent Domain
Eminescu, Michail
Emlyn, Thomas
Emmanuel Philibert
Emmanuel
Emmaus
Emmendingen
Emmerich
Emmet, Robert
Emmet, Thomas Addis
Emmett, Daniel Decatur
Emmitsburg
Emmius, Ubbo
Emmons, Ebenezer
Emmons, Nathanael
Empedocles
Emperor Anastasius I
Emperor Anastasius II
Emperor Henry II The Saint
Emperor Henry III The Black
Emperor Henry IV
Emperor Henry V
Emperor Henry VI
Emperor Henry VII
Emperor John I
Emperor John II
Emperor John III
Emperor John IV
Emperor John V Or VI
Emperor John VI Or V
Emperor John VI Or VII
Emperor Joseph I
Emperor Joseph II
Emperor Leo I
Emperor Leo III
Emperor Leo IV
Emperor Leo V
Emperor Leo VI
Emperor Leopold I
Emperor Leopold II
Emperor Maximilian I
Emperor Maximilian II
Emperor Maximilian Of Mexico
Emperor
Emphysema
Empire
Empiricism
Employers' Liability
Empoli
Emporia
Empson, Sir Richard
Empyrean
Ems, Germany
Ems River
Emser, Jerome
Enamel
Encaenia
Encaustic Painting
Enceinte
Encina, Juan Del
Encke, Johann Franz
Enclave
Encoignure
Encyclical
Encyclopaedia
Endecott, John
Endive
Endoeus
Endogamy
Endor
Endospora
Endymion
Energetics
Energici
Energy
Enfantin, Barthelemy Prosper
Enfidaville
Enfield, Connecticut
Enfield, Middlesex
Enfilade
Engadine
Engaged Column
Engel, Ernst
Engel, Johann Jakob
Engelberg
Engelbrechtsdatter, Dorthe
Engelhardt, Johann Georg Veit
Enghien, Louis Antoine Henri De Bourbon Conde
Enghien
Engine
Engineering
Engineers, Military
Engis
England, The Church Of
England
Englefield, Sir Francis
Engleheart, George
Englewood
English Channel
English Finance
English History
English Knights Riding Into The Lists
English Language
English Law
English Literature
Englishry
Engraving
Engrossing
Enguri
Engyon
Enid
Enigma
Enkhuizen
Enneking, John Joseph
Ennis
Enniscorthy
Enniskillen, William Willoughby Cole
Enniskillen
Ennius, Quintus
Ennodius, Magnus Felix
Enns
Enoch, Ethiopic Book Of
Enoch
Enomoto, Buyo
Enos
Enriquez Gomez, Antonio
Enschede
Ensenada, Cenon De Somodevilla
Ensign
Ensilage
Enstatite
Entablature
Entada
Entail
Entasis
Enteritis
Enthusiasm
Enthymeme
Entomology
Entomostraca
Entragues, Catherine Henriette De Balzac D'
Entre Minho E Douro
Entre Rios
Entrecasteaux, Joseph-Antoine Bruni D'
Entrepot
Envoy
Enzio
Enzyme
Eocene
Eon De Beaumont
Eotvos, Jozsef
Epaminondas
Eparch
Epaulette
Epee, Charles-Michel
Epee-De-Combat
Eperjes
Epernay
Epernon
Ephebi
Ephemeris
Ephesians, Epistle To The
Ephesus, Council Of
Ephesus
Ephod
Ephor
Ephorus
Ephraem Syrus
Ephraim
Ephthalites
Epic Poetry
Epicene
Epicharmus
Epictetus
Epicurus
Epicycle
Epicycloid
Epidaurus
Epidiorite
Epidosite
Epidote
Epigoni
Epigonion
Epigram
Epigraphy
Epilepsy
Epilogue
Epimenides
Epinal
Epinaos
Epinay, Louise Florence Petronille Tardieu D'esclavelles D'
Epiphanius, Saint
Epiphany, Feast Of
Epirus
Episcopacy
Episcopius, Simon
Episode
Epistaxis
Epistemology
Epistle
Epistyle
Epistylis
Epitaph
Epithalamium
Epithelial, Endothelial
Epitome
Epoch
Epode
Epona
Eponymous
Epping
Epps
Epremesnil, Jean Jacques Duval D'
Epsom Salts
Epsom
Equation Of The Centre
Equation Of Time
Equation
Equator
Equerry
Equidae
Equilibrium
Equinox
Equites
Equity
Equivalent
Erard, Sebastien
Erasmus, Desiderius
Erastus, Thomas
Eratosthenes Of Alexandria
Erbach
Erbium
Ercilla Y Zuniga, Alonso De
Erckmann-Chatrian
Erdelyi, Janos
Erdmann, Johann Eduard
Erdmann, Otto Linne
Erebus
Erech
Erechtheum
Erechtheus
Ereshkigal
Eretria
Eretrian School Of Philosophy
Erfurt
Ergot
Eric XIV
Ericaceae
Erichsen, Sir John Eric
Ericht, Loch
Ericsson, John
Eridanus
Eridu
Erie, Pennsylvania
Erigena, Johannes Scotus
Erigone
Erin
Erinna
Erinyes
Eriphyle
Eris
Erith
Eritrea
Erivan, Government Of
Erivan, Russia
Erlangen
Erle, Sir William
Erlkonig
Erman, Paul
Ermanaric
Ermeland
Ermelo
Ermine Street
Ermine
Ermoldus Nigellus
Erne
Ernest Augustus
Ernest I
Ernest II
Ernesti, Johann August
Ernesti, Johann Christian Gottlieb
Ernst, Heinrich Wilhelm
Erode
Eros
Erpenius
Erroll
Error
Ersch, Johann Samuel
Erskine, Ebenezer
Erskine, Henry
Erskine, John, Divine
Erskine, John, Of Carnock
Erskine, John, Of Dun
Erskine, Ralph
Erskine, Thomas Erskine
Erskine, Thomas
Erubescite
Erysipelas
Erythrae
Erythrite
Erzerum
Erzgebirge
Erzingan
Esar-Haddon
Esau
Esbjerg
Escanaba
Escape
Eschatology
Escheat
Eschenburg, Johann Joachim
Eschenmayer, Adam Karl August Von
Escher Von Der Linth, Arnold
Eschscholtz, Johann Friedrich
Eschwege
Eschweiler
Escobar Y Mendoza, Antonio
Escoiquiz, Juan
Escombe, Harry
Escorial
Escovedo, Juan De
Escuintla
Escutcheon
Esher, William Baliol Brett
Esher
Esker
Eski-Shehr
Eskilstuna
Eskimo
Esmarch, Johannes Friedrich August Von
Esna
Esoteric
Espagnols Sur Mer, Les
Espalier
Espartero, Baldomero
Esparto
Esperance
Esperanto
Espinay, Timoleon D'
Espinel, Vicente Martinez
Espirito Santo
Espronceda, Jose Ignacio Javier Oriol Encarnacion De
Esquire
Esquirol, Jean Etienne Dominique
Esquiros, Henri Francois Alphonse
Ess, Johann Heinrich Van
Essay, Essayist
Esseg
Essen
Essenes
Essentuki
Essequibo
Essex, Arthur Capel
Essex County
Essex, Earls Of
Essex, Kingdom Of
Esslingen
Establishment Of A Port
Establishment
Estaing, Charles Hector
Estate And House Agents
Estate Duty
Estate
Estcourt, Richard
Este Family
Este, Italy
Estebanez Calderon, Serafin
Estella
Esterhazy Of Galantha
Esters
Esther
Esthonia
Estienne
Eston
Estoppel
Estouteville, Guillaume D'
Estovers
Estrada, La
Estrade
Estrades, Godefroi
Estreat
Estrees, Gabrielle D'
Estremadura
Estremoz
Estuary
Esztergom
Etagere
Etah
Etampes, Anne De Pisseleu D'heilly
Etampes
Etaples
Etawah
Etching
Eteocles
Etesian Wind
Etex, Antoine
Ether
Etheredge
Etheridge, John Wesley
Etheridge, Robert
Ethers
Ethics
Ethiopia
Ethnology
Ethyl Chloride
Ethyl
Ethylene
Etienne, Charles Guillaume
Etiquette
Etna, Pennsylvania
Eton
Etretat
Etruria
Ettenheim
Ettingshausen, Constantin
Ettlingen
Ettmuller, Ernst Moritz Ludwig
Ettmuller, Michael
Ettrick
Etty, William
Etymology
Eu
Euboea
Eubulides
Eubulus, Athenian Poet
Eubulus Of Anaphlystus
Eucalyptus
Eucharis
Eucharist
Euchre
Eucken, Rudolf Christoph
Euclase
Euclid Of Megara
Euclid
Eucratides
Eudaemonism
Eudocia Augusta
Eudocia Macrembolitissa
Eudoxia Lopukhina
Eudoxus Of Cnidus
Eudoxus Of Cyzicus
Eugene Of Savoy
Eugene
Eugenics
Eugenie
Eugenius
Eugenol
Euhemerus
Eulenspiegel
Euler, Leonhard
Eumenes, Macedonian General
Eumenes Of Pergamum
Eumenides
Eumenius
Eumolpus
Eunapius
Eunomius
Eunuch Flute
Eunuch
Euonymus
Eupalinus
Eupatoria
Eupatridae
Eupen
Euphemism
Euphonium
Euphorbia
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbium
Euphorbus
Euphorion
Euphranor
Euphrates
Euphronius
Euphrosyne
Euphuism
Eupion
Eupolis
Eupompus
Eurasian
Eure-Et-Loir
Eure
Eureka Springs
Eureka
Euripides
Euroclydon
Europa
Europe
Europium
Eurydice
Eurymedon
Eusden, Laurence
Eusebius, Bishop Of Rome
Eusebius Of Caesarea
Eusebius Of Emesa
Eusebius Of Loadicea
Eusebius Of Myndus
Eusebius Of Nicomedia
Eusebius
Euskirchen
Eustace
Eustathius, Archbishop Of Thessalonica
Eustathius Macrembolites
Eustathius
Eustyle
Eutawville
Euthydemus
Eutin
Eutropius
Eutyches
Eutychianus
Eutychides
Euyuk
Evagoras
Evagrius
Evander
Evangelical Alliance
Evangelical Association
Evangelical Church Conference
Evangelical Union
Evans, Christmas
Evans, Evan Herber
Evans, Oliver
Evans, Sir George De Lacy
Evans, Sir John
Evanson, Edward
Evanston
Evansville
Evaristus
Evarts, William Maxwell
Eve
Evection
Eveleth
Evelyn, John
Evelyn Pierrepont
Everdingen, Allart Van
Everest, Mount
Everest, Sir George
Everett, Alexander Hill
Everett, Charles Carroll
Everett, Edward
Everett, Massachusetts
Everett, Washington
Everglades
Evergreen
Everlasting
Eversley, Charles Shaw Lefevre
Evesham
Evidence
Evil Eye
Evolution
Evora
Evreux
Ewald, Georg Heinrich August Von
Ewald, Johannes
Ewart, William
Ewe
Ewell, Richard Stoddert
Ewing, Alexander
Ewing, Juliana Horatia Orr
Ewing, Thomas
Examinations
Exarch
Excambion
Excellency
Exchange
Exchequer
Excise
Excommunication
Excretion
Execution
Executors And Administrators
Exedra
Exelmans, Rene Joseph Isidore
Exequatur
Exeter Book
Exeter, Devon
Exeter, Earl, Marquess And Duke Of
Exeter, New Hampshire
Exhibition
Exhumation
Exilarch
Exile
Exili
Exmoor Forest
Exmouth, Edward Pellew
Exmouth
Exodus, Book Of
Exodus, The
Exogamy
Exorcism
Exorcist
Exotic
Expatriation
Expert
Explosives
Express
Expropriation
Expulsion
Extension
Extenuating Circumstances
Exterritoriality
Extinct Rodents
Extortion
Extract
Extradition
Extrados
Extreme Unction
Eybeschutz, Jonathan
Eyck, Van
Eye, Suffolk
Eye
Eyemouth
Eylau
Eyra
Eyre, Edward John
Eyre, Sir James
Eyrie
Ezekiel
Ezra And Nehemiah, Books Of
Ezra, Fourth Book
Ezra, Third Book Of
Ezra
Ezzo
Ezzolied

Privacy Policy